Are there Prophecies about Muhammad in the Bible?

by Saif min Suyufillah


Thy Brethren and Prophet like Him are explained below as well as the prophecies about False Prophets.


Christians do not believe that the Qur’an is the Word of God but, purely for the sake of argument, we shall proceed as if God did indeed put his words in Muhammad’s mouth to discover whether this might prove that Muhammad is the prophet referred to in Deuteronomy 18.18. In our view the statement “I will put my words in his mouth” does not help to identify the prophet referred to at all. It is true of every prophet that God has put his words in his mouth.


It is not a single point,the later verses contain other points too and all of them conclude to Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w.

I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers. And I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.

Prophet Like you,

Among your brothers (Plural),

Put my words,

All are Discussed below.

And whoever will not listen to my words that he shall speak in my name, I myself will require it of him.But the prophet who presumes to speak a word in my name that I have not commanded him to speak, or who speaks in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die.’ Everyone has to die,so the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w. also died but note it that he LIVED for further 23 years after He s.a.w.w. declared His Prophethood.

And if you say in your heart, ‘How may we know the word that the LORD has not spoken?’—when a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD, if the word does not come to pass or come true, that is a word that the LORD has not spoken; the prophet has spoken it presumptuously. You need not be afraid of him.See the list of prophecies which came true.

As one can see God often chooses the younger child over the firstborn, which is the very thing God did with Ishmael and Isaac. In light of the preceding statements it is quite evident that the promises to Ishmael did not include God’s covenant promises and has nothing to do with Muhammad’s religion whatsoever.


The point is that the promises are similar to the Promises God made to Prophet Ibrahim a.s.,the great nation of Prophet Ibrahim a.s. included Prophets and Books in His generation and the other blessings as well.

And I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you and make your name great, so that you will be a blessing.(Genesis 2)

The promise for the Prophet Ismail a.s. is also that of great nation and blessings.

And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. (Genesis 17:20)

Misha’al Al-Kadhi’s claims several such prophecies in his “comprehensive book” on mankind’s tampering with the Bible. — Judge for yourself who is tampering. Here we look at chapter 6 in his book which claims several prophecies about Muhammad in the Bible.

There are a few problems with the liberty of the Hebrew that was made :

  • In the Hebrew, the “H” sound is a gutteral one, so that it is XMD to be correct. The Hebrew word is actually chemdah (khem-daw’), which occurs 25 times in Bible. I do not find any sensible meaning when these are replaced with “Muhammad”.
  • The word in Haggai 2:7 is a feminine noun, so that the transliteration gives an extra “H” at the end, i.e., XMDH, which is changed to a T to indicate a genitive relationship. How can Muhammad take on a feminine noun? It also indicates a word form that is not there.
  • Let us look at the context of the passage (Haggai 2:6-9):

6 For thus saith the LORD of hosts; Yet once, it [is] a little while, and I will shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry [land];
7 And I will shake all nations, and the desire of all nations shall come: and I will fill this house with glory, saith the LORD of hosts.
8 The silver [is] mine, and the gold [is] mine, saith the LORD of hosts.
9 The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the former, saith the LORD of hosts: and in this place will I give peace, saith the LORD of hosts.

The context clearly is about the rebuilt temple of God in Jerusalem, which stood after the Babylonian Exile till it was destroyed by the Romans in A.D. 70, so unless Muhammad went to the Second Temple (“this house”) before it was destroyed, this passage cannot refer to him.


Hebrew Verses

Link 2


Link 3

The List of Hebrew Alphabets

Dots in Hebrew

Most Jews pronounce both דּ and ד as “d”. Some groups pronounce דּ as “d” and ד as “th,” as in the word “then.”

The hard כּ is pronounced “k”. The soft כ is pronounced “ch” (as in challah).

The Hebrew word used in the verse is חֶמְדַּת

The first letter is Het corresponding to English H and Arabic Ha.

Second is Mem corresponding to English M and Arabic Meem.

Third is Dalet corresponding to English D and Arabic Daal.

Fourth is Tav

When HMD or HA MEEM DAAL are same and constant in any case,then how could you deny that the root words are not same?

The three root words for hmd are present in Hmdt.



Gen. 49:10 “The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.”

The word is gathering of people,not the gathering of Israel or Jews or any particular group of people.

People were gathered by Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w.,Islam was for the whole humanity,for all the nations,not for a single group of people.

Secondly,there is nothing in this verse saying that the Shiloh would be from the offspring of Judah.There is no such specification.


  • Is Muhammad the Prophet like Moses? (Deuteronomy 18:18) : [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]


1.From among you:

The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your brothers—it is to him you shall listen

From among you – From in between you,where you dwell or live.

It does not necessarily mean the one from you offspring.

See the translation of oxford dictionary.

2.From among your brothers:

Anxious about Brethren?See

It is to enhance the fact that among you is not about your direct descendants.It is someone from the offspring of your brothers,someone not very direct but someone not that distant.

Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w. is not directly from the offspring of Prophet Israel a.s. but not also very distant from Him as He s.a.w.w. is from the offspring of Prophet Ismail a.s.

It is among you from your BROTHERS.

3.Prophet Like me:

1.Prophet Musa a.s. and Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w. Both were Law givers.Prophet Jesus a.s. did not provide any new law to his people.

2.They Both had their people suffering.

3.They Both migrated.

4.They Both were given many miracles/signs.

5.The first revelation was delivered when Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w. was in the cave of Mountain.Prophet Musa a.s. received the laws when He a.s. visited the Mountain Sinai.

6.They both had affected by magic.

7.They both fought magic and overcame it.

8.During migration,both were chased by disbelievers.

9.Both Came back to the promised land……..

10.Both had married for the first time to those women from their side they received financial and other support.

11.Both had no biological sons.

12.Both were brought up at a place other than their own home

13.Both were given the laws after their migration

14.Both were raised for two types of people,the oppressors and those who believed them for their guidance.

15.Both were stoned

16.Both were given the miracle of flowing water

17.Both were rejected by their own family.

18.Both mentioned a special day for the worship

Is the Muhammad the “Comforter” or the “Spirit of Truth”? (John 14-16) :

Who is the “Comforter”?


The Islamic claims that Muhammad is the Comforter have been put to the acid test and they dissolved.  These claims were weak and failed for several reasons:

1)  the Muslim writers offered no textual proof to substantiate their assertions

2)  they were unable to provide in-depth references as support

3)  they avoided providing the reader with analysis of the texts because any analysis would show the weakness in their argument


You need textual proofs or in depth references?

I am mentioning everything only from the Holy Quran.

Read the verses about Comforter and see the points mentioned below.

JOHN 14:15-17:  “If you love me you will obey what I command.  And I will ask the Father and He will give you another Comforter to be with you forever – the Spirit of Truth.  The world cannot accept him because it neither sees him nor knows him.  But you know him for he lives with you and will be in you.

Another comforter,someone else than Prophet Jesus a.s. who would remain forever with the Christian,among them.

It is Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w. who came after Prophet Jesus a.s. and who left Holy Quran and His sunnah for the people of this world.

Allah would protect Quran forever.

Surely We have revealed the Reminder and We will most surely be its guardian.(15:9)

JOHN 14:25, 26:  “All this I have spoken while still with you.  But the Comforter, the Holy Spirit whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you.

Will teach you:

It is He who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom – although they were before in clear error -(62:2)

Just as We have sent among you a messenger from yourselves reciting to you Our verses and purifying you and teaching you the Book and wisdom and teaching you that which you did not know.(2:151)

Remind you of everything I have said:

“He [‘Iesa (Jesus)] said: Verily! I am a slave of Allah, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet;”

“And He hath made me blessed wheresoever I be, and hath enjoined on me Prayer and Charity as long as I live;

“And dutiful to my mother, and made me not arrogant, unblest.

And peace is on me the day I was born and the day I will die and the day I am raised alive.”


And will make him [‘Iesa (Jesus)] a Messenger to the Children of Israel (saying): “I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by Allah’s Leave; and I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I bring the dead to life by Allah’s Leave. And I inform you of what you eat, and what you store in your houses. Surely, therein is a sign for you, if you believe.

And I have come confirming that which was before me of the Taurat (Torah), and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you, and I have come to you with a proof from your Lord. So fear Allah and obey me.

Indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is the straight path.”(3:49-51)



JOHN 15:26:  “When the Comforter comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me.”

And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive(19:31)

And will make him [‘Iesa (Jesus)] a Messenger to the Children of Israel (saying): “I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by Allah’s Leave; and I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I bring the dead to life by Allah’s Leave. And I inform you of what you eat, and what you store in your houses. Surely, therein is a sign for you, if you believe.(3:39)

Indeed, the example of Jesus to Allah is like that of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said to him, “Be,” and he was.(3:59)

And Zechariah and John and Jesus and Elias – and all were of the righteous.(6:85)

JOHN 16:7,8:  “But I tell you the truth:  It is for your good that I am going away.  Unless I go away, the Comforter will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you.  When he comes he will convict the world of guilt in regard to sin and righteousness and judgment….”

He would only come when Prophet Jesus a.s. would go away:

It confirms that it was not Angel Jibrail a.s. (Holy Spirit) because He a.s. was with Prophet Jesus a.s. aiding Him.

We gave Moses the Book and followed him up with a succession of messengers; We gave Jesus the son of Mary Clear (Signs) and strengthened him with the holy spirit. Is it that whenever there comes to you a messenger with what ye yourselves desire not, ye are puffed up with pride?- Some ye called impostors, and others ye slay!(2:87)

Holy spirit was there with Prophet Jesus a.s. so it must be someone else than Holy Spirit who would come later on,after Prophet Jesus a.s. and Holy Spirit.

That is Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w.

The next sign is that He (s.a.w.w.) would convict the world of guilt in regard to sin and righteousness and judgement.

This is also done by Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w.See the list of Islamic punishments.

Adultery :Flogging

Theft :Cutting hands

Murder :Death sentence or blood money

Rape :Death sentence of the rapist alone

JOHN 16:13-15:  “But when he, the Spirit of Truth comes, he will guide you into all truth.  He will not speak on his own, he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to comeHe will bring glory to me by taking from what is mine and making it know to you.  All that belongs to the Father is mine.  That is why I said the Spirit will take from what is mine and make it known to you.”

He will not speak on His own:

Nor does he speak of (his own) desire.(53:3)

He will tell you what is yet to come:

And in no way is he reluctant with the Unseen (81:24)

We have inquired with a scholar in the field of Zoroastrianism and early Persian texts and were given this information:

… you are entirely right in suspecting the authenticity of the ‘Epistle of Sasan 1’. The ‘Desatir’, from which it is cited, aroused a great deal of interest among Parsis and in the academic community at its publication, because it contained much remarkable material, but as soon as it was the subject of serious scholarly investigation it was established, on the basis of language and contents, that it was a literary forgery. It is thought to be the product of some Persian Sufi school, with only the most tenuous connection with Zoroastrianism. The spuriousness of your particular passage is instantly apparent, because there was no Sasan 1. “Sasan” was the eponymous ancestor of the Sasanian royal family, but nothing is known about him, and the name was never borne by any king of the dynasty. A whole succession of obscure “Sasans” were, however, invented to link the historic dynasty with the legendary Kayanian dynasty of the Zoroastrian ‘Avesta’ [prayer book of Zoroastrianism], and so the name occurred in semi-mystical writings, and would readily have been picked up by the unknown author of the ‘Desatir’. There is no reason to suppose that the text of an ‘Epistle of Sasan 1’ existed outside that work.


Encyclopedia mentions something else.

Sāsān, (flourished 1st century ad?), eponymous ancestor of the Sāsānian dynasty in ancient Persia. Details of his life vary, but most scholars believe he was originally a prince in the province of Persis and a vassal of Gochihr, the chief petty king in Persis. His son or descendant was Bābak, who was the father ofArdashīr I, the founder of the Sāsānian Empire. According to one tradition, Sāsān married a daughter of Gochihr, and later their son Bābak revolted and killed Gochihr. According to another tradition, however, Sāsān and Bābak were not related, but Sāsān was a shepherd of King Bābak in Persis. After dreaming that Sāsān’s son would one day rule the world, Bābak gave Sāsān his daughter in marriage, and from this union Ardashīr was born.


The Epistle of Sasan I describes future events at a time when Zoroastrians will have forsaken their religious practices. The English translation of the Epistle of Sasan I is presented below.

“When the Persians will do such deeds, a man from among the Arabs will be born whose followers shall overthrow and dissolve the kingdom and religion of the Persians. And the arrogant people (Persians) will be subjugated. Instead of the temple of fire and the house of idols they will see the House of Abraham without any idols as their Qibla. And they (Muslims) will be a mercy to the worlds. And they will capture the places of temples of fire, Madain (Ctesiphon), nearby lands, Tus and Balkh, and other eminent and sacred places (of Zoroastrians). And their leader (Prophet Muhammad) will be an eloquent man whose words and message will be clear and far-reaching.”



1. “… will be a man circumcised, keeping beard, creating a revolution, announcing the prayer-call, eating all kinds of animal except swine…. they will be known as Musalman.” [Bhavishya Puran/Shalokas 10-27]

2. “A foreign spiritual teacher will appear with his companions. His name will be Mohammad.” [Maharisyi Vyasa/Bhavisya Puran/Prati Sarg Parv III:3,3,5-8]


There are many others too.

Atharva Veda: (1) XX: 21, Mantras 6, 7, and 9, (2) XX: 137, Mantras 7 through 9, and (3) X: 2, Mantras 26, 27, 29, 30, and 32.

Similarly, in Rig Veda, additional prophecies are found in: (1) VII: 96, Mantras 13 through 16, and (2) I: 53, Mantras 6 and 9.

Finally, a prophecy is found in Sama Veda III: 10, Mantra 1.

These are a sample of many prophecies. The serious reader may want to refer to scholarly work of Dr. A.H. Vidyarthi, entitled “Mohammad in World Scriptures,” 1990. This book explains the Hindu terminology used in the Mantras and the meaning and usage of certain words and phrases from within the Vedas and other Hindu Scriptures (By Dr Z Haq)



Now the LORD said to Abram, “Go from your country and your kindred and your father’s house to the land that I will show you.

And We delivered him and Lot to the land which We had blessed for the worlds.(21:71)

And I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you and make your name great, so that you will be a blessing.

And Abraham instructed his sons [to do the same] and [so did] Jacob, [saying], “O my sons, indeed Allah has chosen for you this religion, so do not die except while you are Muslims.”(2:132)

And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham was tried by his Lord with commands and he fulfilled them. [ Allah ] said, “Indeed, I will make you a leader for the people.” [Abraham] said, “And of my descendants?” [ Allah ] said, “My covenant does not include the wrongdoers.”(2:124)

So We have taught thee the inspired (Message), “Follow the ways of Abraham the True in Faith, and he joined not gods with Allah.”(16:123)

And We had certainly given Abraham his sound judgement before, and We were of him well-Knowing(21:51)

Say, “Indeed, my Lord has guided me to a straight path – a correct religion – the way of Abraham, inclining toward truth. And he was not among those who associated others with Allah .”(6:161)

The religion of Prophet Ibrahim a.s.

They say, “Be Jews or Christians [so] you will be guided.” Say, “Rather, [we follow] the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth, and he was not of the polytheists.”(2:135)

Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam. And those who were given the Scripture did not differ except after knowledge had come to them – out of jealous animosity between themselves. And whoever disbelieves in the verses of Allah , then indeed, Allah is swift in [taking] account.

Say, “We have believed in Allah and in what was revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Descendants, and in what was given to Moses and Jesus and to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [submitting] to Him.”(3:84)

And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.(3:85)

I will bless those who bless you, and him who dishonors you I will curse, and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.”(Genesis 1-3)

And who is better in religion than one who submits himself to Allah while being a doer of good and follows the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth? And Allah took Abraham as an intimate friend.(4:125)

And mention in the Book [the story of] Abraham. Indeed, he was a man of truth and a prophet.(19:41)

Say, ” Allah has told the truth. So follow the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth; and he was not of the polytheists.”

Indeed, the first House [of worship] established for mankind was that at Makkah – blessed and a guidance for the worlds.(3:95-96)

And who would be averse to the religion of Abraham except one who makes a fool of himself. And We had chosen him in this world, and indeed he, in the Hereafter, will be among the righteous.(2:130)

And strive for Allah with the striving due to Him. He has chosen you and has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty. [It is] the religion of your father, Abraham. Allah named you “Muslims” before [in former scriptures] and in this [revelation] that the Messenger may be a witness over you and you may be witnesses over the people. So establish prayer and give zakah and hold fast to Allah . He is your protector; and excellent is the protector, and excellent is the helper.(22:78)



And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. (Genesis 17:20)


Nation is not confined by the boundaries of countries rather it is something related to the religion.

Nation is different from the fellow men of the same country or the people living in a same kingdom.

Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains.(Mark 13:8)

 Nation and kingdoms are obviously different.

“So look, house of Israel! I will raise up a nation against you,” declares the LORD, the God of the Heavenly Armies, “and they will harass you from the entrance of Hamath to the wadi of the wilderness.”(Amos 6:14)

House of Israel, were the Jews,the followers of a religion,believing in a Prophet and having a book,and they were a nation as nation will rise against nation.

People of Israel,” declares the LORD, “I am bringing a distant nation against you— an ancient and enduring nation, a people whose language you do not know, whose speech you do not understand.(Jeremiah 5:15)

Nation against nation.

People of Israel or the Jews are a nation so the Muslims are a nation too.

Song of Solomon 5:16

His mouth is sweetness itself; he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, this is my friend, daughters of Jerusalem.

The actual word which is translated as altogether lovely or desirable is Mahamadim


False Prophets:


Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? (Matthew 7:15-16)


See the next verses.

“Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are ravenous wolves.

You will recognize them by their fruits. Are grapes gathered from thornbushes, or figs from thistles?

So, every healthy tree bears good fruit, but the diseased tree bears bad fruit.

A healthy tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a diseased tree bear good fruit.

Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.

Thus you will recognize them by their fruits.(7:15-20)


Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name’s sake. And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another. And many false prophets shall arise, and shall deceive many. (Matthew 24:9-11)


See some preceding verses and note the context.

For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and there will be famines and earthquakes in various places.(Wars,earthquakes and famines)

All these are but the beginning of the birth pains.

“Then they will deliver you up to tribulation and put you to death, and you will be hated by all nations for my name’s sake.(By all nations?When did it happen?)

And then many will fall away and betray one another and hate one another.(When did it happen?For after that,the false prophets had to arise…)

And many false prophets will arise and lead many astray.
(Mathew 24:7-11)


And no marvel, for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light. Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also be transformed as the ministers of righteousness; whose end shall be according to their works. (2 Corinthians 11:14-15)


This is the speech of Paul about his boastfulness.

Note the words and note his confusion as well.

I robbed other churches by accepting support from them in order to serve you.

And when I was with you and was in need, I did not burden anyone, for the brothers who came from Macedonia supplied my need. So I refrained and will refrain from burdening you in any way.

As the truth of Christ is in me, this boasting of mine will not be silenced in the regions of Achaia.

And why? Because I do not love you? God knows I do!

And what I am doing I will continue to do, in order to undermine the claim of those who would like to claim that in their boasted mission they work on the same terms as we do.

For such men are false apostles, deceitful workmen, disguising themselves as apostles of Christ.

And no wonder, for even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light.

So it is no surprise if his servants, also, disguise themselves as servants of righteousness. Their end will correspond to their deeds.

I repeat, let no one think me foolish. But even if you do, accept me as a fool, so that I too may boast a little.

What I am saying with this boastful confidence, I say not as the Lord would but as a fool.

Since many boast according to the flesh, I too will boast.

For you gladly bear with fools, being wise yourselves!

For you bear it if someone makes slaves of you, or devours you, or takes advantage of you, or puts on airs, or strikes you in the face.

To my shame, I must say, we were too weak for that! But whatever anyone else dares to boast of—I am speaking as a fool—I also dare to boast of that.

Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they offspring of Abraham? So am I.

Five times I received at the hands of the Jews the forty lashes less one.

Three times I was beaten with rods. Once I was stoned. Three times I was shipwrecked; a night and a day I was adrift at sea;

on frequent journeys, in danger from rivers, danger from robbers, danger from my own people, danger from Gentiles, danger in the city, danger in the wilderness, danger at sea, danger from false brothers;

in toil and hardship, through many a sleepless night, in hunger and thirst, often without food, in cold and exposure.

And, apart from other things, there is the daily pressure on me of my anxiety for all the churches.

Who is weak, and I am not weak? Who is made to fall, and I am not indignant?

(2 Corinthians 11:8-29)

This was the part of speech of Paul,whereby he was telling about his boastfulness.


Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their conscience seared with a hot iron. (1 Timothy 4:1-2)


Just see the next verse as well.

The Spirit clearly says that in later times some will abandon the faith and follow deceiving spirits and things taught by demons.

Such teachings come through hypocritical liars, whose consciences have been seared as with a hot iron.

They forbid people to marry and order them to abstain from certain foods, which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and who know the truth.(1 Timothy 4:1-3)


For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears; and they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables. (2 Timothy 4:3-4)


At least that could not be Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w. who was confirming the sound doctrine i.e. Holy Bible.


How shall Allah guide a people who disbelieved after their belief and had witnessed that the Messenger is true and clear signs had come to them? And Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.(3:86)